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Improvement of the Flows of Matter and Energy in the Known Universe
LundaHydro AB, Vårlöksvägen 4, SE-387 92 Borgholm, Sweden
by Application of the Equality Principle: A Theoretical Approach
A novel approach is suggested for how to utilize the inherent forces of the universe for the benefit of mankind by applying the previously introduced model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE) to generally enable improvement of the major flows of gas, matter and energy between stars and whole galaxies. It is shown how the torus-shaped flow of cosmos can be improved with the EUROPE model in order to facilitate the efficiency and preservation of universe and possibly secure its existence by allocating fictive but useful shadow costs to unwanted waste-like phenomena such as dust, gas and energy flow losses and unwanted radiation in this torus and also improve all the different cosmic flows of gas, matter and energy between various stellar bodies. The less shadow costs being allocated to these stellar residuals, the more efficient the cosmic torus flow and transferring are and vice versa expressed in equivalents of antimatter released. The introduced methodology is advantageous for the economy when travelling in space, advances the technology used and improves the environment when space is explored and exploited. A single key factor based on the EUROPE model is provided for simultaneously monitoring, managing and evaluating the development process of the entire universe and the flows of gas, matter and energy between different stellar objects such as stars and whole galaxies.
Keywords: Cosmic torus; Cosmic flows; Stellar flows; Development process; Gas; Matter; Energy; Stars; Galaxies; Improvement; Preservation; Equality principle; EUROPE model.
The universe is torus-shaped (Aurich et al. 2008). Figure 1 shows the fundamental torus geometry of the universe (Psychic Spirit in You 2016). Therein, dust, gas, matter, energy and star clusters constantly flow up on the inside and down at the outside of the torus and so on.
The present paper shows how the EUROPE model based on the equality principle (Stenis 2005a, b, Stenis, Hogland 2014a, b, 2015a, b, c, 2016) can be applied on this torus-shaped flow of universe and the flows between stellar bodies so as to make these flows more efficient by allocating fictive but useful shadow costs to unwanted flow spillages and losses in the torus and between different stellar bodies, such as stars and galaxies. This approach enables monitoring, management and evaluation by a single key factor which simultaneously improves the cost-effectiveness, the technology used and the cosmic environment plus the stellar flows in the whole known universe.
Energy and matter flow across the universe and are exchanged between star systems and whole galaxies, one illustrative example being the two galaxies NGC 3808 on the right and its companion NGC 3808A on the left in Figure 2 (Spaceref 2016). The stars, dust and gas that flow from NGC 3808 form an enveloping arm around NGC 3808A.
The bridge of shared matter between these two galaxies suggests that some stars and gas drawn from the larger galaxy have been caught in the gravitational pull of the smaller one. The shapes of both galaxies have been distorted by their gravitational interaction with one another (Spaceref 2016).
The main ambition of the author is to provide a versatile tool to secure the long run existence of cosmos and the free flow of light and other sources of information between star systems and galaxies throughout cosmos by employing the equality principle for preserving it, provided that the necessary means and measures are at hand. When these times come, the methods are described here and wait to be used at higher organizational policy levels throughout the entire known universe forever and ever. This endeavour is regarded as increasing the cosmic altruism.
The two galaxies NGC 3808 (right) and NGC 3808A (left) Spaceref 2016
This paper presents a methodology for how to improve the flow of the whole cosmic torus and the flows of dust, gas, matter and energy in space between star systems and galaxies. Shadow costs are employed to increase the efficiency of these flows by allocating fictive but useful units of antimatter to the unwanted flow residuals that decrease the functionality of the good flows.
The introduction gives the astronomic context and describes the scientific ambition of the author. Thereafter, the basic scientific foundation for the paper is outlined.
The previously launched equality principle and the EUROPE model is introduced in the torus and cosmic flow context. Guidelines are presented for how to apply the methodology introduced for improving the flows of matter and energy in universe. General theory of business administration and economics are applied in a modified way.
This paper does not exhibit any case study concerning the cosmic flows. This is due to the author's ambition to merely introduce a theoretical approach of possible usefulness in a distant future when mankind possesses adequate resources to have a real impact on cosmic matters.
After a results and discussion section, suggestions for further research are given. Finally, the outcomes of the present study are summarised in the conclusions, benefits and recommendations sections.
The scientific methodology chosen combines the study of: (i) what should be changed and how, and; (ii) the development of theories and models based on the accumulation of knowledge presented in, in this case, a scientific paper.
Quantitative methodology is applied. The research approach is mainly analytical.
The validity of the developed methods is granted by the application of commonly accepted theory of economics such as business administration in a modified way based on scientific results and long experience of its practical usage. The reliability is ensured by consulting relevant standard works.
3. The Equality Principle
3.1 Basic Framework
The equality principle denotes an ambition to in financial terms equalize regular products with residual products. This view is regarded as necessary to accomplish an upgrading of wastes.
By doing so, a cleaner environment can be accomplished which leads to higher profits in industry (Lidgren 1993) and an improved technology. Social conditions will also improve.
3.2 Theoretical Foundation
The model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy, the EUROPE model, constitutes the mathematical expression of the equality principle. A Proportionality Factor (PF) is calculated to be multiplied by the total costs (TC) in order to obtain a fictive but useful shadow cost (SC) that is inserted into the accounting systems and budgets of the organization in question. Weights (W) allow management to consider demands from public agencies as well as taking their own preferences into account. Shadow costs or shadow prices are defined as a monetary value assigned to a good or service when the market price is unavailable or incomplete (Your dictionary 2013).
The EUROPE model creates economic incentives to improve economy, nature, technology and living conditions in general. Thus, the equality principle is an economic instrument.
SC = PF * TC * W = (A / (B + C)) * TC * W (1)
SC = fictive shadow cost to additionally be allocated to organisations' economy (2)
PF = proportionality factor to allocate a logical portion of TC to A (3)
TC = total cost of the current organization = total cost of the producing unit (4)
A = the residual to be minimized or at least reduced (the bad) (5)
B = the total regular products from the producing unit in question (the goods) (6)
C = the total wastes from the producing unit in question (the total bads) (7)
W = the weight factor to consider public demands and managers' view (8)
during a certain time period
Sort: kg, litre, Joule, or currency.
4. Application of the Proposed Structure on Improvement of Cosmic Flows
4.1 General Theory for Preservation of a Universal Torus
Equation (1) is used to allocate 'punishing' shadow costs expressed as equivalents of antimatter to the unwanted spillages of the universal torus so as to improve the efficiency of its flow.
SC torus = (A i / (B i + C i)) * TC torus * W torus (9)
SC torus = antimatter shadow cost to allocate to the universal accounts and budget (10)
A i = the waste fraction i to be reduced, such as unwanted gas flows or radiation (11)
B i = the total benevolent flow of the universal torus to be maintained (12)
C i = the total unwanted flows that decrease the efficiency of the universal torus (13)
TC torus = the total loss if the cosmic torus breaks down due to loss of good flows (14)
W torus = the weight allocated by the universal management to the residual type A (15)
during a certain time-unit measured in a plausible way.
Sort: equivalent units of antimatter.
4.2 General Theory for Improvement of the Flow of Gas, Matter and Energy
Between Stars and Galaxies
Equation (1) is used to allocate 'punishing' shadow costs expressed as equivalents of antimatter to the unwanted spillages of the cosmic matter and energy flows so as to improve its efficiency.
SC flow = (A i / (B i + C i)) * TC flow * W flow (16)
SC flow = antimatter shadow cost to allocate to the cosmic accounts and budget (17)
A i = the waste fraction i to be reduced, such as unwanted gas flows or radiation (18)
B i = the total benevolent flow between galaxies and star systems to be maintained (19)
C i = the total unwanted flows that decrease the efficiency of the cosmic flows (20)
TC flow = the total loss if the cosmic flows break down due to loss of good flows (21)
W flow = the weight allocated by the universal management to the flow residual A (22)
during a certain time-unit measured in a plausible way.
Sort: equivalent units of antimatter.
4.3 Consequences of Application of the Theory
The implementation of Equation (9) and (16) promotes the preservation of a certain universe by making its flows more efficient. This facilitates the long run wellbeing of the cosmic inhabitants.
4.4 Multiple Universa
In case of m parallel universa to be improved, Equation (9) can be applied on all their tori.
SC multiple tori = Sum of SC torus i (23)
i = 1, ..., m
4.5 Multiple Flows
In case of n connected flows to be improved, Equation (16) can be applied on all these flows.
SC multiple flows = Sum of SC flow i (24)
i = 1, ..., n
4.6 Practical Example of Allocation of Shadow Costs to Universal Budgets
The shadow costs: SC torus, SC flow, SC multiple tori and/or SC multiple flows are inserted into the budgets or profit and loss accounts of the administrative unit in question, see Table 1.
Table 1. The schematic public finances of, for example, the Milky Way (after OECD 2012).
Expenditure on goods and services
SC torus, SC flow, SC multiple tori and/or SC multiple flows
This causes an incentive to reduce the losses and spillages of the cosmic flows that are to be improved. The geographical scale can be a twin star system, the Milky Way or the whole local galaxy cluster exhibiting flows of dust, gas, matter and energy, all the way up to the entire torus-shaped universe to be improved as regards its inherent flow of gas, substances and energy.
The general principle is: the less shadow costs that occur, the better the cosmic flows function and vice versa. The quality of the universal managements' efforts can hence be evaluated over time since the development of the shadow costs mirrors the changes in efficiency of the ambitions to improve the flows in the universal torus and between the stellar bodies. Thus, the authorities at the higher policy analysis organizational levels throughout cosmos obtain a most versatile tool, the single key factor SC, to simultaneously monitor, manage and evaluate the development of the separate flows of matter and energy and the flow in the entire cosmic torus.
5. Results and Discussion
The theoretical findings point at a fruitful possibility to apply the equality principle on interstellar flows as well as industrial matters here on earth. The reason for this is that its mathematical expression, the EUROPE model, is applicable on all kinds of black box systems where an input, an output and a residual fraction is present. Such flows can be optimised, or at least improved, by using the EUROPE model.
The flows of dust, gas, matter and energy between different bodies in the universe is possible to regard as a black box system because it just depends on where the system border is drawn. In the case of a flow between two stars or between different galaxies, the system limit consists of these stars and galaxies respectively. When studying how to improve the cosmic torus, the limit is set at just the borders of the known universe etcetera. As a matter of fact, the system limit can be set around different parallel universa when improving the flows in a multitude of worlds.
The potential of the present work hence seems to be endless in geographical terms. Also the advantages for the living creatures throughout universe can be regarded as immeasurable since the proposed model will increase the probability for all life in cosmos to survive in the long run.
The author hopes that his findings will constitute the foundation for a possible galactic or even intergalactic federation's endeavour to monitor, manage and evaluate their area in space. In doing so, the altruism, or its equivalent, throughout cosmos will be enhanced due to an increased sense of belonging to a universal village with room for everyone and everything showing love.
The major end users of the proposed approach are as follows.
1. Major deciding bodies such as possible galactic or intergalactic assemblies;
2. Planetary governments that want a tool for project appraisal and evaluation, and;
3. Overruling stellar authorities that want to implement life-promoting legislation.
6. Suggestions for Future Works
The theoretical findings of the present work can be the basis for studies of a more philosophical nature. Algorithms can be developed for how to apply the equality principle in a cosmic context based on classical philosophical paradigms which generally are accepted. In doing so flows as, for example, benevolent thoughts and nice attitudes could possibly be improved as well.
The results show viability for improving the flows of dust, gas, matter and energy:
1. between stars and galaxies;
2. to preserve a universal torus;
3. in multiple universa
for multiple flows as well.
The introduced methodology is beneficial in the following ways.
1. It improves the interstellar flows between stars and galaxies in the known universe;
2. It provides a user-friendly tool for different deciding assemblies throughout universe;
3. It increases the probability for various forms of life to survive while feeling happy.
Based on the author's analysis, the following recommendations are made.
1. Use the EUROPE model for studying the flows of dust, gas, matter and energy between different stellar bodies before deciding to invest in major cosmic schemes and when performing interstellar project appraisals;
2. Use the EUROPE model to manage the wastes and spillages of all energy and matter throughout the known universe in order to uphold its existence.
Scientific Research Associate Doctor Amira Val Baker, the Hawaii Institute for Unified Physics, and Professor William Hogland, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Sweden, are acknowledged for providing useful information.
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